The Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT) is very useful in cryptography and other
domains. According to Wikipedia, its origin and name
come from this riddle in a 3rd century book by a Chinese mathematician:
There are certain things whose number is unknown. If we count them by threes,
we have two left over; by fives, we have three left over; and by sevens, two
are left over. How many things are there?
Mathematically, this is a system of...